Diagnosing Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) with RCLS
Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) is an illness where plaque builds up inside the coronary arteries. The arteries play an important role in supplying oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscles, however, over time plaque builds up and can harden. This results in the arteries becoming narrow due to not being able to deliver enough oxygen-rich blood to the heart which causes angina or a heart attack to occur.1
BHF highlighted that Coronary Heart Disease was one of the UK’s biggest killers in 2010 resulting 46,000 premature deaths of which 68% were men.2
CHD is more likely with increasing age, particularly in men. These risk factors cannot be changed, however, there are other risk factors that can be modified such as blood cholesterol, being overweight or obese, smoking, lack of physical activity, unhealthy diet and stress.
You can prevent and control many CHD risk factors with heart-healthy changes and medication. Some lifestyles often increase the chance of developing the disease such as smoking, poor diet, adequate exercise therefore, there are many lifestyle changes to help control several CHD risk factors at the same time, such as physical activity which may reduce stress, lower your blood pressure, help control diabetes and help control your weight.3
Currently, there are four state of the art, fully functional ISO12025 accredited laboratories, located in Liverpool, London, Holywood and the Randox Science Park in Antrim giving RCLS the power to output to pharmaceutical, health and research markets.
Specialising in biomarker and multiplex testing in addition to standard safety and clinical testing, RCLS provides a full laboratory service to accelerate laboratory projects to completion. Our experienced project management teams are available to provide support and guidance from initial biomarker selection through to the design of a comprehensive results data package to deliver against your project aims and timelines.
Renowned for quality and reliability, the Rx Series and Evidence series are utilised by all RCLS Laboratories, guaranteeing real cost savings as well as highly-accurate flexible testing solutions. Furthermore, RCLS perform sample testing on numerous third-party analysers situated in our laboratories dependent upon the testing which is required by the customer.
RCLS can outsource the Cardiac Risk Prediction Array in their laboratory on the Evidence Investigator. We developed a rapid array which will allow all 19 SNPs to be genotyped simultaneously on one single sample. The RCLS team aim to save your laboratory time and money. By utilising our multiplex panels including the Cardiac Risk Prediction Array Panel, RCLS can offer labour saving, time reducing and cost-effective solutions for all your laboratory testing.
If you would like to find out more information about RCLS and what it has to offer contact email@example.com
At Randox Testing Services, we are always trying to think of new ways to get the message across about the positive impact workplace drug & alcohol testing can have on an organisation. So, we decided to speak with one of our colleagues; Simon Tibbo, who is regularly engaging with companies about how to be proactive in minimising the risks of substance misuse.
Read below to find out what he had to say.
From your experience and knowledge, what industries are currently implementing testing programmes?
Apart from the finance industry, I’ve personally seen testing programmes within almost all business sectors, from the obvious, safety critical industries, Rail Track, Maritime, Construction, Logistics, all the way through to manufacturing firms, retail outlets, and even predominantly clerical companies. If a company has a workplace substance misuse policy and are looking to satisfactorily enforce the terms within, they will be engaged with a service provider, such as Randox, to properly support the policy.
What are, in your opinion, the barriers that companies face when trying to implement working drug & alcohol testing?
The introduction of a substance misuse policy to an already existing ‘company handbook’ can be a challenge, especially if the work-force has been established for some time. People don’t tend to like change, especially within the workplace. Unions can sometimes be unwelcoming to the idea of random testing and will often look to restrict the scope of testing or the policy itself. I’d say that each industry/company will likely meet its own barriers whilst developing and implementing a policy, and some may well be unique to the individual circumstances. Often, customers may implement an amnesty period prior to the commencement of a drug testing programme. This gives employees the opportunity to come forward and declare if they have a substance misuse issue which they can address together with their employer without sanctions.
Why has there been a delay in some companies developing workplace policies that directly relate to substance misuse?
There could be many reasons as to why a company hasn’t implemented a policy, but I’d expect somewhere near the top of that list would be either the assumption there isn’t a substance misuse issue within the business/industry, the worry that a substance misuse issue within the business/industry is highlighted by the introduction of a policy, and therefore creating more problems than its seen to be solving, or even that a company is simply unaware the solution is available and beneficial.
How important within a policy is it that a company clearly outlines what is expected of an employee, and the consequences of substance misuse?
Very! A policy needs to be clear and concise in its structure and procedures. If you aren’t explaining the terms or the consequences you could potentially end up with a problematic HR process and unresolvable tribunal cases. If an employee has sight of a straightforward policy they will know what to expect if the terms are breached, not to mention enforcing it should be equally as straightforward. It is also important to state why the policy is in place – i.e. to protect the workforce, the public and the company reputation.
Is it important to state cut-offs in substance misuse policies?
For alcohol, yes, most certainly. For drugs, not so much. An alcohol test with a home office approved breathalyser will provide an evidential result, which can be directly related to a ‘site cut-off’ (in the same manner as the existence of a road legal limit). Workplace drug testing should adhere to specific guidelines set-out by the EWDTS (European Workplace Drug Testing Society) in not just it’s procedures, but also its expected substance cut-offs. The cut-offs differ between substances so it’s not quite as straightforward. My suggestion would always be, if you feel it necessary to include drug cut-off information, refer to the EWDTS guidelines, they’re available to download on the EWDTS website if anyone needs sight, but ensure your provider is working to them and don’t go into full details, it’ll serve only to add unnecessary bulk to what should ideally be a streamlined policy.
How effective has workplace testing been in helping companies reduce the risk of drug & alcohol use?
From personal experience I can tell you, I’ve seen companies implement a policy/testing practice due to an awareness of substance misuse, only to reduce the volume of testing over time as the approach has proved successful in reducing or eradicating the specific problem. I’d say that’s a testament to implementing a random testing practice, it sends a sensible message in a fair and balanced manner, which ultimately gets results. If it’s done right, it’s going to be beneficial, even if it’s not particularly well received at its inception. Other examples where testing volume has been scaled back have led to an increase in the rates of positives demonstrating that an active testing programme is a deterrent to substance misuse.
Going forward, what industries do you see adopting a more proactive approach in use of substance misuse testing?
Likely most industries, every company has a duty of care to staff, contractors, visitors and/or the public. There will always be industries that don’t agree, don’t want to uncover issues or don’t believe they exist, but it’s the people that matter and the more that’s done to promote safety, welfare and overall good practice, the more industries will settle to the idea.
About Randox Testing Services
Randox Testing Services offer a wide range of products and services for the testing of illicit substances. We can craft customised packages to suit the needs of our customers, no matter what the industry.
Our expertise and experience working within this industry allow us to provide a range of testing solutions that will impact the risk of substance use in the workplace. With an extensive collection network and quality products, we can meet the needs of your business.
To find out more, contact us:
Phone: +44 (0) 28 9442 2413
Respiratory tract infection (RTI) is defined as any infectious disease of the upper or lower respiratory tract. Some infections can affect the sinuses, throat, airways or lungs.1 Upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) include the common cold, laryngitis, pharyngitis/tonsillitis, acute rhinitis, acute rhinosinusitis and acute otitis media.2Whereas lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) include acute bronchitis, bronchiolitis, pneumonia and tracheitis.2
Every five minutes someone dies from lung disease in the UK lung disease and are responsible for more than 700,000 hospital admissions and over 6 million inpatient bed-days in the UK each year. (BLF)3
The typical symptoms of respiratory tract infections include the following:4
- a cough – you may bring up mucus (phlegm)
- a stuffy or runny nose
- a sore throat
- muscle aches
- breathlessness, tight chest or wheezing
- a high temperature (fever)
- feeling generally unwell
The lungs are a vital organ to the human body as they keep us alive and functioning. Our bodies are designed to protect the lungs, keeping dirt and germs at bay. There are many tips on how to keep your lungs healthy to reduce the risk of developing lung disease or respiratory tract infections:
One of the main advices to reduce any sort of lung disease is to not smoke. Smoking cigarettes are the major cause of lung disease. Research have stated there is one in five deaths annually or 1,3000 deaths every day because of smoking.5 On average, smokers would have a shorter life span and die 10 years earlier. Cigarettes cause the air passages to narrow making breathing difficult.6 Overtime it will destroy the lung tissue which can result long-term illness such as cancer. It is also important to avoid second-hand smoking as even though the person isn’t physically smoking a cigarette they can still inhale the toxic chemicals from being near a smoker.
Minimize exposure to outdoor air pollution can improve lung health because certain air pollution can affect the lungs making it more difficult to breathe.6 Getting involved in regular exercise will strengthen the lungs and keep them healthy.
An important key point to prevent lung disease is to prevent infection. A simple cold can cause serious complications to the lungs. It is essential to take care of your hygiene by washing your hands regularly with soap and warm water to get rid of any bacteria. Avoid crowds during flu season and get vaccinated every year against influenzas. Finally, regular healthcare check-ups is essential to allow early diagnosis and treatment if needed.
Randox Clinical Laboratory Services (RCLS), provides a clinical laboratory service designed to meet the time sensitive, bespoke requirements of research and clinical projects globally. We provide a trusted and checked testing service as all our clinical laboratories hold numerous accreditation’s ensuring your patient samples are tested to the highest standard.
If your laboratory is outsourcing Respiratory testing, Randox Clinical Laboratory Services offers the Respiratory Multiplex Array with the ability to test your patient samples for you!
We detect 22 bacterial and viral pathogens from a single sample! Our experienced project management teams are available to provide support and guidance from initial biomarker selection through to the design of a comprehensive results data package to deliver against your project aims and timelines while you save money, time and labour.
The Evidence Investigator is a compact, semi-automated benchtop analyser which is renowned for its versatility, robustness and effective reporting methods. The Evidence Investigator has offered efficient and comprehensive testing in a wide range of laboratory settings for many years including, clinical diagnostics, molecular, research, toxicology and food diagnostics.
The Evidence Investigator is the perfect fit for medium throughput laboratories seeking maximum use of bench space and can process up to 44 results from a single sample, with a maximum throughput of up to 2376 tests per hour.
It is extremely well equipped to provide reliable and accurate results because results are generated using Charge Coupled Device (CCD) camera, which quantifies chemiluminescent light. The light then measures the degree of binding between the sample and specific biochip bound ligands. The Evidence Investigator image processing software translates light signal generated from chemiluminescent reactions into analyte concentrations which removes the need for any manual processing of data.
Our molecular product range offers diagnostic, prognostic and predictive solutions across a variety of disease areas including sexually transmitted infection (STI), respiratory tract infection, colorectal cancer, familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Additionally, we can provide a wide range of assay formats including single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) genotyping, pathogen detection and mutation detection. The technology allows simultaneous detection of multiple analytes from a single sample for efficient and cost-effective testing.
STI and Respiratory Arrays
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) affect more than 1 million people every day and each year 500 million new cases of STIs occur.1 Therefore, it is vital for early and accurate detection. Randox’s Sexually Transmitted Infections Multiplex Array simultaneously detects 10 bacterial, viral and protozoan including primary, secondary and asymptomatic co-infection for a complete infection profile. The assay is based on a combination of multiplex PCR and biochip array hybridisation. Innovative PCR priming technology permits high discrimination between multiple targets.
Respiratory tract infections are caused by many viral and bacterial pathogens and are the second most common cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide.2 The Respiratory Multiplex Array is the most comprehensive screening test for infections of both the upper and lower respiratory tracts, simultaneously detecting 22 bacterial and viral pathogens from a single sputum lavage or nasopharyngeal sample.
Both arrays detect the most common and frequently requested infections in sexual and respiratory health. These comprehensive, highly sensitive and specific tests enable identification of co-infections simultaneously, often in asymptomatic patients and enable antibiotic stewardship.
KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA Array and Familial Hypercholesterolemia Arrays I & II
The colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer worldwide. Overall, the lifetime risk of developing colorectal cancer is: about 1 in 22 (4.49%) for men and 1 in 24 (4.15%) for women.3 The KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA Array simultaneously detects 20 point mutations within the KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA genes. The assay is validated for use with the DNA extracted from fresh/frozen and formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue. The array is CE marked for routine clinical use.
Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a genetic disorder of lipoprotein metabolism. 4It is the most common autosomal dominant, or inherited disease and affects the plasma clearance of LDL-cholesterol, resulting in premature onset of cardiovascular disease and higher mortality risk.5 Early diagnosis is crucial as by the time the FH sufferer enters early adulthood they will have accumulated >20 years of continuous exposure to build up of fatty or lipid masses in the arterial walls and are at the hundred-fold greater risk of a heart attack than other young people. The Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH) Arrays I & II are rapid, simple and accurate detection of 40 FH-causing mutations within the LDLR ApoB and PCSK9 genes.
These unique biochip assays permit high discrimination between multiple targets in several genes with a rapid turnaround time (3 hours). The arrays enable detection of the most frequently occurring mutations known to cause disease (FH) and adversely affect patient treatment (KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA). A unique primer set is designed for each target which will hybridise to a complimentary oligo-nucleotide probe spotted on a biochip discrete test region (DTR).
Cardiovascular Risk Prediction Array
Coronary Heart Disease is the leading cause of death in the developed world and its prevention is a core activity for public health systems worldwide.6 Randox have the Cardiac Risk Prediction Array which will allow for 19 SNPs to be genotyped simultaneously, which incorporate a test to identify patients predisposed to statin-induced myopathy.
This array identifies individuals with a genetic predisposition to coronary heart disease (CHD). The innovative multiplex primers are designed to discriminate DNA sequences which differ only at one base.
For more information on our Evidence Series or Molecular range of Assays, contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org
Randox Clinical Laboratories Service (RCLS) has been built on 35 years of Randox Laboratories experience. The aim of our RCLS team is to meet the time sensitive, custom-made requirements of research and clinical projects. They specialize in biomarker and multiplex testing to provide full laboratory services to aid the project aims and timelines whilst saving time and money. Currently, there are four laboratories across the UK located in Liverpool, London, Holywood and the Randox Science Park in Antrim where knowledgeable and proficient teams are situated and are available accordingly to provide support and guidance.
Continuing with National Heart Month, RCLS would like to take the opportunity to reinforce the importance of taking care of your hearts health. (WHO) highlighted Ischemic heart disease and stroke are the world’s biggest killers. An estimated 17 million people die of cardiovascular disease particularly heart attacks and strokes every year.1
Lipoprotein (a) which is also known as Lp(a) consists of two protein molecules, apolipoprotein (a) or apo(a). It is a large lipoprotein particle made by the liver. The Apo(a) particle is a very sticky protein particle, thought to be involved in the clotting system and its addition can be likened to adding a patch of Velcro on to a normal LDL particle. 2 Having some cholesterol and Lp(a) in your blood is normal however, high levels of LDL cholesterol would increase your risk of having some serious heart implications.
It has been highlighted in recent research that blood levels of Lp(a) could be an important indication as it is currently the strongest inherited risk factor for developing cardiovascular disease and stroke. Globally, one in five people have high levels of Lp(a) greater than 50mg 3. As a result, gradually narrow the arteries, limiting blood supply to the brain, heart kidney, legs and can also increase the risk of blood clots, heart attack and stroke.
High Lp(a) can also be related to other common risks factors of cardiovascular diseases for example, smoking, diet, diabetes, high blood pressure and lack of exercise. Therefore, it is possible that those who appear “healthy” can have high Lp(a) in their genes and still be at high risk of cardiovascular diseases.
The Lipoprotein(a) Foundation strongly emphasized that the Lp(a) test would be advised if you have the following:
- If there is a family who has history with cardiovascular disease including stroke, heart attack, circulation problems in the legs and/or narrowing of the aorta, at a young age. If someone in your family has high Lp(a), their children have a 50/50 chance inheriting it.
- Stroke or heart attack are classical risk factors including high LDL-cholesterol, obesity, diabetes and smoking have been eliminated
- High levels of LDL-cholesterol following treatment with statins or other LDL lowering medications
Randox Clinical Laboratory Services offer you our Lipoprotein (a) assay as well as our variety of analysers across all RCLS laboratories including our RX Series and Evidence Series as well as third party analysers ensuring the testing abilities are diverse. The Randox Lp(a) assay is one of the only methodologies on the market that detects the non-variable part of the Lp(a) molecule providing accurate and consistent results.
If you would like more information on RCLS please contact email@example.com
Randox Clinical Laboratory Services (RCLS) utilises the expertise and knowledge that Randox has built up over 35 years producing high quality IVD products. We strive to provide a clinical laboratory service to meet the time sensitive, bespoke requirements of research and clinical projects globally.
Moving away from traditional single analyte assays, Biochip Array Technology (BAT) boosts cutting edge multiplex capabilities. Biochip Array Technology provides a unique platform for assessment of biological samples in a rapid, accurate and easy to use format and users can have the utmost confidence in this proven technology.
Our technology facilitates the simultaneous quantitative or qualitative detection of a wide range of analytes, providing a rapid and accurate diagnosis from a single patient sample. As well as having time and cost saving benefits, which drive towards an increase in clinical performance, testing for multiple markers given a more comprehensive picture of a patient’s condition.
By RCLS utilising the innovative Biochip Array Technology that Randox have created, we are able to avail the Evidence Evolution. The Evidence Evolution is the world’s first fully automated random access biochip testing platform. It sets new standards in diagnostic quality and efficiency to deliver precise results quickly and economically. With the capability to process up to 2,640 tests per hour, the Evidence Evolution offers complete system integration, as well as the most comprehensive multiplex test menu on the market.
Overall, the Evidence Evolution provides benefits that allows us to offer you a cost effective, labour saving and time reducing solution for your sample testing. Randox Clinical Laboratory Services also utilise the wide array of Randox analysers, both clinical and Immunoassay, several third party analysers are also used by RCLS.
To find out more information on what Randox Clinical Laboratory Services has to offer email us at firstname.lastname@example.org
Randox Clinical Laboratory Services offer an array of common and novel assays, with a large test menu of over 220 tests, across multiple platforms including our RX Series of clinical chemistry analysers and our Evidence Series Immunoassay analysers.
GLDH measurements can be taken to evaluate the liver function. Elevated blood serum levels indicate liver damage. GLDH also plays an important role in the differential diagnosis of liver disease, especially in combination with aminotransferases.
Liver diseases such as toxic liver damage or hypoxic liver disease are characterised by high serum levels. In clinical trials, GLDH can also be used as a measurement for the safety of a drug.
The Randox GLDH is an optimised standard method according to the recommendations of the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Klinische Chemie. This procedure measures the nonspecific creep reaction.
Wide measuring range
The Randox GLDH (DGKC) assay has a wide measuring range of 2.90 – 77.3 U/l which will comfortably detect levels outside of the healthy range
The GLDH (DGKC) assay showed a correlation of r=0.99 against another commercially available method
Stable to expiry when stored at 2-8⁰C
RCLS currently has four state of the art, fully functional ISO17025 accredited laboratories across the UK. They are situated in Liverpool, London and two in Northern Ireland, Hollywood and Randox Science Park in Antrim. RCLS looks to expand their team of experienced scientists, working towards further accreditations and furthermore setting up two additional labs in Dubai and Los Angeles. The addition of these purpose-built labs will give RCLS the ability to increase output to both the pharmaceutical, health and research market.
The RCLS laboratories offer unrivalled sample management and workflow with a unique identifier and sample traceability allowing patient history to be 100% accurate and guaranteed. The storage locations of sample are located separately with a duration of 15-25 years in fire proof cabinets. The sample rejection criteria and sample destruction processes are different from diagnostics standards as we offer multiple bar coding, sample manifests dictated by LIMS and double blinding of samples undergoing genomic testing.
If you would like more information on RCLS please contact email@example.com