Complement C4 – Biomarker for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disorder associated with a deficiency in complement C4. Complement C4 is one of nine components of the complement system which is an integral part of the immune system that enhances (complements) the ability of antibodies and phagocytic cells to clear microbes and damaged cells from the host, promote inflammation, and attack the cell membrane of pathogens.
Complement C4 is a vital component of two immunology pathways: Classical pathway and Mannrose Binding Lectin (MBL) pathway.
The classical pathway is triggered by antibody-antigen complexes which induces a conformational change in the C1 complex. The activated C1 complex cleaves the C4 component, resulting in a reactive C4b which covalently binds to proteins or polysaccharides at the surface in close proximity of the C1 component. The bound C4b complexes binds to the C2 component rendering C2 for proteolysis by C1.
The MBL pathway is activated through the binding of MBL to mannose residues on the pathogen surface. This in turn activates the MBL-associated serine proteases, MASP-1 and MASP-2, which activates the C4 and C2 components, to form the C3 convertase, C4b2a. The C4b2a complex splits C3 into two fragments which causes the release of vasoactive mediators such as histamine.
Complement C4 deficiency is commonly associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
According to lupus.org, 16,000 new cases of lupus are reported each year. Approximately 1 in 250 people may end up developing SLE at some point with 90% of SLE patients being female aged between 15-44 years. The causes of SLE are unknown, but are believed to be linked to environmental, genetic, and hormonal factors. 1.5 million Americans are living with diagnosed lupus.
There are four forms of lupus:
- Systemic – accounts for approximately 70% of all lupus cases. In half of these cases, a major organ or tissue in the body, such as the heart, lungs, kidneys, or brain will be affected.
- Cutaneous lupus – accounts for approximately 10% of all lupus cases and only affects the skin.
- Drug-induced lupus accounts for approximately 10% of all lupus cases and is caused by high doses of certain medications.
- Neonatal lupus is a rare condition in which the mother’s antibodies affect the fetus. At birth, the baby may have a skin rash, liver problems, or low blood cell counts, but these symptoms typically disappear completely after six months with no lasting effects.
The Randox Complement C4 assay
The Randox Complement C4 assay is used for the quantitative in vitro determination of complement C4 concentration in serum. The Randox Complement C4 assay can be used as a biomarker in the diagnosis and monitoring of SLE. It is the cell-bound levels of processed complement activation products, especially E-C4d (erythrocyte-bound C4) that makes the complement C4 assay a biomarker for SLE.
Key Features of the Randox Complement C4 assay
Liquid ready-to-use reagents – The Randox reagent comes in a convenient liquid format requiring minimal preparation thus reducing the risk of errors.
Exceptional correlation with standard methods – The Randox methodology was compared against other commercially available methods and the Randox Complement C4 assay showed a correlation coefficient of r=0.98.
Wide measuring range – The healthy range for Complement C4 is 7 -49 mg/dl. The Randox Complement C4 assay can comfortably detect levels outside of the healthy range measuring between 2.90 – 152 mg/dl.
On 8th March 2018, Randox Reagents are supporting World Kidney Day! World Kidney Day is an annual campaign and partnership to raise awareness of the importance of our kidneys to our overall health and to reduce the frequency and impact of kidney disease and its associated health problems worldwide.
This year, the World Kidney Day theme is: “Kidney Disease and Women’s Health: Include, Value, Empower”. Chronic kidney disease affects approximately 195 million women worldwide and it is currently the 8th leading cause of death in women, with close to 600,000 deaths per year.
Chronic kidney disease in women has increased over the years. Women over the age of 50 and African American women have seen the highest rise of kidney failure. This has been attributed to obesity, diabetes and high blood pressure. It is important that women are screened for renal impairment as although treatment of kidney disease in men and women are the same, the complications associated with renal impairment in women is greater than in men. The complications women are faced with due to renal impairment include: irregular periods, diminished sex drive and difficulties conceiving. Whilst it is difficult for a woman with renal impairment to conceive, it is not impossible, however, 50% of babies born to women on dialysis survived with most being born prematurely due to high blood pressure. There are several measures that women can take to reduce their likelihood of developing renal impairment or manage their symptoms including; lifestyle changes, medication to control associated problems, dialysis and kidney transplant.
The standard marker for renal functional is creatinine as creatinine clearance gives a measure of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), however, creatinine levels are unreliable in individuals who are obese, malnourished, have liver cirrhosis or reduced muscle mass. Due to this, Randox developed an automated test for Cystatin C, a superior marker of kidney dysfunction.
The Randox Cystatin C assay
Cystatin C is a small (13kDa) cysteine proteinase inhibitor that is produced at a constant rate by all nucleated cells. The small molecular weight of cystatin C allows it to be completely removed and broken down by the kidneys. Therefore, levels remain steady if the kidneys are working efficiently and the Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) is normal.
There are several studies that have documented the superiority of cystatin C compared to creatinine as a marker of GFR function. Unlike creatinine, cystatin C does not have a ‘blind area’ meaning it is extremely sensitive to very small changes in GFR and therefore capable of detecting early reductions in GFR. Up to 50% of renal function can be lost before significant creatinine levels are detected. GFR estimates based on cystatin C are less influenced by diet or muscle mass compared to GFR estimates based on creatinine, therefore, Cystatin C is also beneficial if the patient is overweight, elderly or has a lot of muscle mass. Cystatin C is also beneficial if previous kidney function tests were inconclusive.
World Kidney Day and Randox are working towards improving healthcare globally. With continuous investment into R&D, Randox are striving to develop the earliest biomarker for renal function to prevent serious complications.
This year, Randox Reagents are supporting Rare Disease Day on 28th February. Randox offer a test that aids in the diagnosis and monitoring of Wilson Disease and Menkes Disease which are rare inherited disorders of copper metabolism.
What is a rare disease?
According to the European Union, a rare disease is defined as a disease that affects less than 5 in 10,000 of the general population. 7% of the population will be affected by a rare disease at some point in their life. This equates to 30 million people in Europe.
Wilson Disease is a rare inherited autosomal recessive disorder of copper metabolism, characterised by excessive deposition of copper in various bodily tissues, particularly the liver, brain, and corneas of the eyes. This is due to mutations of the ATP7B gene which is responsible for encoding specific proteins that are responsible for the transportation of copper from the liver around the body, which is prohibited due to the mutations. If left untreated, Wilson Disease can cause hepatic disease, central nervous system dysfunction, or death. Approximately 1 in 30,000 people are affected by Wilson Disease worldwide (WDA, 2018). The first sign of Wilson Disease is liver dysfunction in more than half of patients, beginning at six years of age, however, it usually presents clinically in teenage years or early twenties manifesting as acute hepatitis. Some individuals with Wilson Disease have been thought to have infectious hepatitis or infectious mononucleosis and so it is vital that those with unexplained, abnormal liver tests are tested for Wilson Disease.
Menkes Disease is more likely to affect premature babies and is a rare inherited x-link recessive disorder of copper metabolism, characterised by sparse, kinky hair; failure to gain weight and grow at the expected rate (failure to thrive); and deterioration of the nervous system. This is due to mutations of the ATP7A gene which is responsible for the absorption of copper from food in the small intestines and supplying copper to certain enzymes that are critical for the structure of bone, skin, hair, blood vessels, and the nervous system. Approximately 1 in 100,000 people are affected by Menkes disease worldwide (USA National Library of Medicine, 2018). The first sign of Menkes Disease develops at 2-3 months of age and includes curly, sparse, coarse, dull, and discoloured haired.
As there are no cures for Wilson Disease or Menkes Disease, treatment aids to reduce/replace copper within the body. The Randox Copper assay can comfortably detect copper levels outside of the healthy range to aid in the diagnosis and monitoring of treatment of Wilson Disease and Menkes Disease.
Randox Copper Assay
The Randox Copper assay is used to measure the amount of copper in the blood; to help with the diagnosis and monitoring of rare inherited diseases related to copper toxicity (Wilson Disease) and copper deficiency (Menkes Disease). Copper deficiency is less likely because a normal diet contains plenty of copper including organ meats, beans, and wholegrains, however, copper deficiency is more likely to occur in those who are malnourished, more likely children.
For more information visit: https://www.randox.com/copper
To request an application for your specific analyser, contact email@example.com
Acetaminophen is a commonly used medicine for pain-relief. During cold and flu season, it is common to resort to pain-relief medicines to relieve headaches, and ache and pain symptoms associated with a cold or flu as there is no cure. However, the therapeutic range for acetaminophen is 10-30 mg/l, which is small and very easy to go over. During cold and flu season, it is important to monitor the amount of paracetamol entering your body as acetaminophen is more dangerous than suspected. At therapeutic levels, acetaminophen does not produce any adverse effects, however, long-term treatment, prolonged use, and taking a few more than the recommended dose can be severely damaging and fatal. Accidental acetaminophen overdose took the lives of 1,500 people in the U.S between 2001 and 2010. The Randox Acetaminophen assay is used to determine the concentration levels of acetaminophen in the blood to determine if an overdose has taken place.
It is commonly recognised that acetaminophen overdose causes hepatotoxicity, but it is less commonly recognised that it can also cause nephrotoxicity in less than 2% of patients. Nephrotoxicity is toxicity of the kidneys and is often associated with a reduced amount of glutathione which is important for normal cellular metabolism in the kidneys. The Randox Glutathione Reductase assay is required for the regeneration of reduced glutathione. Glutathione is often discussed in association with the Randox Glutathione Peroxidase, which requires reduced glutathione for activation. Both Glutathione reagents are unique to Randox.
Acute renal failure due to acetaminophen manifests as acute tubular necrosis, which can occur alone or in combination with hepatic necrosis. Nephrotoxicity can also occur when the therapeutic levels of acetaminophen are not exceeded. This most commonly occurs when acetaminophen is taken in combination with alcohol. Upon testing acetaminophen levels and the results fall within the therapeutic range, the Randox Ethanol assay can test alcohol levels to determine if a combination of alcohol and acetaminophen caused nephrotoxicity. Renal impairment may be more common than previously suspected as acute renal failure occurs in 10-40% of patients with severe hepatic necrosis. Upon testing acetaminophen to determine toxicity, Randox also offer the following renal tests to test for nephrotoxicity:
For more information visit: https://www.randox.com/acetaminophen
To request an application for your specific analyser, contact firstname.lastname@example.org
#LoveYourLiver this January. This month, we are taking a closer look at Liver Cirrhosis.
Liver cirrhosis occurs when the healthy tissue of the liver is replaced with scar tissue (fibrosis) due to long-term liver damage. Liver cirrhosis can result in liver failure which can be fatal.
Liver complications such as liver disease and cirrhosis can be detrimental if it is not treated or monitored. Liver disease is the only major cause of death still increasing year-on-year. Globally, deaths due to liver cirrhosis have increased from 676,000 in 1980 to over 1 million in 2010 (NCBI, 2014). Cirrhosis and other chronic liver diseases have increased by 12.4% from 2006-2016 and was the cause of 1,256,900 deaths in 2016 (Global Burden of Disease, 2016).
There are a few factors that increase the risk of liver cirrhosis. The three main factors are heavy alcohol consumption, an undiagnosed hepatitis infection, particularly hepatitis C, and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (a more severe form of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease) due to obesity.
There are numerous symptoms associated with liver cirrhosis. Some of the more severe symptoms include:
- Jaundice – yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes
- Personality changes, confusion, difficulty concentrating, memory loss, or hallucinations
- A tendency to bleed or bruise easily
- In women, abnormal periods
- In men, enlarged breasts, a swollen scrotum (the loose sac of skin that contains the testicles) or shrunken testicles
- Stomach pain – swollen or bloated stomach
Liver cirrhosis cannot be cured, but the aim of treatment is to manage the symptoms and complications, and to stop the condition getting worse.
#LoveYourLiver and prevent or reduce the symptoms of liver cirrhosis through: moderating alcohol consumption, not sharing needles to inject drugs, using a condom during sex, taking medications as prescribed, and maintaining a healthy weight.
The early stages of liver cirrhosis usually does not present any symptoms and is often first detected using routine blood tests. Liver cirrhosis can be diagnosed and monitored through the following routine blood tests:
Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT)
ALT is one of the enzymes within the aminotransferases group and are among the most sensitive liver enzymes. The normal concentration levels of ALT in the blood are low, however, when the liver is damaged, such as liver cirrhosis, the levels of ALT increase. During the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis, the root cause of the damage can be established, such as disease, drug or injury. ALT is commonly measured alongside AST as part of the hepatic panel.
Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST)
AST is an enzyme found throughout the body. Elevated concentration levels of AST in the blood is directly correlated to the severity of the tissue damage. AST also allows for the root cause of the damage to be diagnosed. Excessive levels are indicative of damage due to acetaminophen overdose or acute viral hepatitis. Moderately high levels are indicative of alcohol abuse. Slightly high levels are indicative of cirrhosis.
AST is commonly measured alongside ALT as part of the hepatic panel, although ALT levels are higher in most types of liver damage.
Albumin is a special protein made in the liver and provides the body with the proteins it requires to grow and repair tissue. The body requires a proper balance of albumin to prevent fluid from seeping out of blood vessels. Decreased concentrations levels of this protein in the blood is an indicator of liver cirrhosis.
Randox supply a range of third party clinical diagnostic hepatic reagents to aid in the diagnosis and managing the complications of liver cirrhosis. All reagents are available for use on a range of third party biochemistry analysers. Randox offer the following hepatic reagents to diagnose liver cirrhosis:
Randox also offer the following high performance and unique tests to diagnose liver cirrhosis:
Why choose Randox reagents?
- Randox offers the largest range of chemistries
- Liquid ready-to-use reagents available
- Automated applications for a wide range of clinical analysers
- Excellent correlation to reference methods
- Wide measuring ranges
- Flexible pack sizes
- Official accreditation to national and international standards including UKAS, ISO 13485:2003, and FDA.
- Easy fit reagents
- Easy read reagents
To request an application for your specific analyser, contact email@example.com
For more information on liver function or to view our hepatic panel, visit https://www.randox.com/liverfunction/
Randox offers an extensive range of third party diagnostic reagents which are internationally recognised as being of the highest quality; producing accurate and precise results. We have the largest test menu of 118 assays, covering over 100 disease markers including specific proteins, lipids, therapeutic drug monitoring, drugs of abuse, antioxidants, coagulation, diabetes and veterinary testing.
Some of the key benefits of Randox Reagents include:
Randox reagents can help create cost-savings for laboratories through excellent reagent stability; by eliminating the need for costly re-runs through the excellent quality of products. We also offer a range of kit sizes including smaller kit sizes for niche tests to reduce waste.
Reduce the risk of errors and have confidence in patient results
Our traceability of material and extremely tight manufacturing tolerances ensure uniformity across reagent batches reducing lot-to-lot variability. In addition, our assays are validated against gold-standard methods, giving you the confidence that you are sending out the correct patient results.
Reduce your time spent on running tests through liquid ready-to-use reagents, automated methods (compared to the traditional laborious ELISA methods used for some tests such as cystatin C or adiponectin) as well as our easy-fit options.
Expand your routine testing
With speciality assays for 195 of the most common clinical chemistry analysers; assays which usually require dedicated equipment, or was previously only available as an ELISA, can now be run on automated biochemistry analysers, allowing your laboratory to expand its routine test menu. For example, cystatin C, adiponectin, TxBCardio™ and many more.
Bring testing in-house
With smaller kit sizes and excellent reagent stability (most are stable for 28 days on-board the analyser), you don’t have to worry about reagent wastage, allowing testing to be brought in-house rather than sent to external laboratories.
Expand your test menu without expanding your lab
There is no need to buy any extra equipment in order to expand your test menu. Our reagents can be programmed onto the majority of the most common biochemistry analysers. At present, we have hundreds of applications available.
Download our reagents brochure to find out about our full range of biochemistry reagents.
Randox reagents are available for a wide range of clinical chemistry analysers. For more information, please contact firstname.lastname@example.org
Obesity is a condition where a person has abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that presents a serious risk to health. This December, Randox are highlighting the health implications of this potentially deadly condition, especially throughout the midst of this festive season when it is all too easy to overindulge in fatty foods and sugary treats!
Worldwide obesity has almost tripled between 1975 and 2016, with over 650 million adults and 340 million children being recorded as obese in 2016 alone, highlighting that the prevalence of the condition is rapidly rising. Randox are dedicated to improving health and increasing the awareness and prevention of obesity and its consequences.
What are the causes and consequences of obesity?
With more people around the world adopting sedentary lifestyles and the increasing consumption of foods high in sugar and fat, there is a higher risk of an energy imbalance between calories consumed and calories expended, which is the fundamental cause of obesity. This increases the risk of a number of diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, musculoskeletal disease and some forms of cancer, with each condition having detrimental effects to your health.
One of the more serious consequences of obesity is type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), where a resistance to insulin is developed causing blood sugar to rise higher than normal. This can lead to serious, long-term problems such as kidney damage, cardiovascular disease and blindness.
How are Randox supporting the battle against the world’s obesity crisis?
Through extensive investment in R&D, we are able to offer cutting-edge diagnostic tests to assess the risk of obesity-related diseases before they occur!
Randox offers the unique adiponectin test to assess the risk of developing T2DM. Low adiponectin levels have also been linked with the risk of developing other pathologies including metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases. The adiponectin test is applicable to both patients with diagnosed clinical obesity, and those deemed to have a ‘healthy’ BMI through a condition known as ‘abdominal obesity’.
This is because while it is widely recognised that people who are overweight or obese are at higher risk of developing T2DM, you don’t have to be overweight to be at risk of developing diabetes. When abdominal visceral fat is stored further underneath the skin and accumulates around major organs, a condition known as abdominal obesity, it greatly increases the risk of developing T2DM. When abdominal visceral fat levels become increased, adipocytes which secrete the protein hormone adiponectin become reduced; this reduces the anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitising properties of this powerful hormone.
The adiponectin test is available for use on hundreds of clinical biochemistry analysers, and can also be run on our world leading RX series range of clinical chemistry analysers. Find out more here: www.randox.com/obesity/
Our world-renowned quality control products help ensure the accuracy of obesity-related testing!
When diagnosing and monitoring obesity-related complications such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) and T2DM, it is vital that laboratories have a robust quality control system in place to ensure the accuracy and reliability of the results produced. This is especially true considering, 70% of medical decisions are based on a laboratory test result.
It is estimated that over 90% of T2DM is related to obesity. When monitoring diabetes, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels in the blood provide an indication of average blood glucose levels for the previous 3 months. It is therefore important that the chosen quality control will effectively challenge the test system across the patient reportable range, as an inaccurate result at the cut-off could mean a patient does not receive appropriate diabetes treatment. Our Acusera Liquid HbA1c control provides clinically relevant levels, not only helping to ensure accurate instrument performance but maximising laboratory efficiency. Find out more here: www.randox.com/obesity/
Thankfully, for those deemed to be at risk, obesity and related illnesses are largely preventable through engaging in regular physical activity (60 minutes daily recommended for adults), limiting energy intake from total fats and sugars and increasing the consumption of fruit and veg, whole grains and nuts. Knowing your risk allows you to stay in control of your health throughout this festive season!
Further to our clinical lab tests, our Randox Health clinics offer heart health, metabolic health and diabetes health testing as part of our Everyman, Everywoman and Signature packages to identify and assess risk of developing obesity-related diseases. Our clinics utilise the same cutting-edge tests and quality control that we have available to clinical laboratories globally, as well as our patented Biochip Array Technology (BAT).
For more information about our clinical diagnostic range of obesity-related products, visit www.randox.com/obesity/
Every year, Randox Reagents support World Diabetes Day on the 14th November. This year, the theme is ‘Women and diabetes – our right to a healthy future’ with the International Diabetes Federation running a campaign aiming to provide all women with diabetes with affordable and equitable access to care and education to better manage their diabetes and improve their health outcomes. A type of diabetes that affects women is gestational diabetes.
Gestational diabetes – what is it?
Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is a form of diabetes which appears in pregnancy, characterised by high blood sugar due to the hormones produced in pregnancy, usually developing in the second or third trimester and disappearing after giving birth. This is a serious condition which can lead to the baby growing larger than usual and can coincide with premature birth, stillbirth and pre-eclampsia, which are detrimental to a mother’s health.
According to the International Diabetes Federation, 1 in 7 births is affected by gestational diabetes. In addition, approximately half of women with a history of GDM go on to develop type 2 diabetes within five to ten years after delivery.
Diagnosis and Monitoring of Gestational Diabetes
Due to the severe complications that can occur with gestational diabetes, it is extremely important to accurately diagnose and monitor the condition. Tests which are commonly used to diagnose diabetes include HbA1c and glucose, including fructosamine, which due to the shorter time span, is particularly useful to evaluate the effectiveness of medication changes and to monitor the treatment of gestational diabetes.
Complications associated with gestational diabetes include diabetic ketoacidosis, a serious complication of diabetes which occurs when blood sugar levels are consistently high and insulin levels are severely low, making it essential to measure D-3-Hydroxybutyrate levels. This is a niche test which is available from Randox Reagents – find out more here.
Preventing Gestational Diabetes
As well as diagnosing and monitoring gestational diabetes, it is important that women get tested early in order to put in place measures to help avoid developing diabetes, improving quality of life for themselves and their baby. Ways in which they can do this is through adopting a healthier lifestyle in terms of monitoring diet and getting regular exercise.
Randox offer an automated adiponectin test which predicts the risk of patients developing both gestational and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). Therefore, it is important to measure adiponectin before pregnancy as low concentrations are associated with reduced glucose tolerance during pregnancy and can identify women at high risk for gestational diabetes.1
Innovations in diabetes testing has led to the ability to more accurately detect risk, diagnose and manage the complications of diabetes. Randox offer a wide range of diabetes reagents in an automated biochemistry format, allowing rapid and accurate assessment for both laboratory professionals and clinicians.
Join Randox Reagents on World Diabetes Day 2017 to help spread awareness and prevent gestational diabetes in women by providing them with access to education and improve their health outcomes!
Randox are dedicated to providing the highest quality tests for diabetes diagnosis, complications monitoring and risk assessment – download our diabetes brochure to find out more about what we have to offer!
For more information, please contact us at email@example.com
Join us as we celebrate World Heart Day on the 29th of September 2017. Randox Reagents aim to make a difference around the world and inspire millions to be heart healthy through offering a wide range of cutting edge cardiology and lipid reagents.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is responsible for 17.5million deaths per year worldwide, making it the leading cause of death (WHO, 2015). This figure is predicted to rise to 23.6million by 2030, emphasising the need for further risk assessment biomarkers to be taken into account in the assessment of CVD.
Some of our most unique cardiac assessment reagents include:
HDL3 is our most recent addition to our cardiology testing panel. HDL3 is a sub-fraction of the HDL molecule, and enhances risk profiling of CVD due to its strong correlation with MI; elevated levels of HDL3 particles reflect abnormally increased triglyceride content of the HDL particle. This means that whilst a patient may have high levels of HDL, they may also have elevated levels of HDL3 which essentially renders the potentially potent protection factor of HDL as a cholesterol scavenger as almost useless.
Randox offers an automated HDL3 assay for the quantitative determination of HDL3 cholesterol in human serum or plasma. For more information, click here.
sLDL is a subtype of LDL Cholesterol. It is more atherogenic due to its small size which makes it more susceptible to oxidation, and enables it to more readily permeate the inner arterial walls, causing damage and destruction. As such, the measurement of sLDL is extremely valuable as a vital risk marker of MI; in fact, elevated levels of sLDL are associated with a three-fold increased risk of MI.
Randox offers an automated sLDL assay with a wide measuring range of 0.189-22.2 mmol/l; therefore it will comfortably detect levels outside of the healthy limit of 4.90 mmol/l, ensuring a worthy addition for true assessment of CVD risk. For more information, click here.
Lp(a) offers an excellent addition to the lipids profile, and should be considered due to its role in the assessment of genetically inherited risks of CVD. As genetically determined, Lp(a) remains fairly constant and is unaffected by lifestyle changes and some treatments. Elevated levels are associated with premature development of atherosclerosis and CVD, and are independent of other lipids. Testing for elevated levels is recommended for patients with a family history of premature CVD or elevated Lp(a), and for patients who have developed CVD at a young age.
Randox Lp(a) offers superior methodology, as it contains a very high density of isoform-insensitive antibodies and detection reagent. There is a five point calibrator available which takes into account the heterogeneity of the Lp(a) molecule for each of the levels, which results in excellent commutability of the calibrator with patient samples. For more information, click here.
You can download our cardiology & lipid testing brochure for a full list of our specialised reagents!
For more information, please contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org
During the second week of our adiponectin educational month, we begin to focus on the key features and benefits of Randox Adiponectin. Check back here every day to read about a different feature of our automated biochemistry reagent.
Read on to find out more!
A – Automated Biochemistry Assay
One of the most important features of Randox Adiponectin is that it is an automated biochemistry assay, removing the inconvenience and time consumption associated with traditional ELISA based testing. Moving from ELISA to automated methods also allows laboratories to expand their test offerings to patients and clinicians.
D – Decreased Serum Adiponectin Levels
Adiponectin is the most abundant protein secreted by adipose tissue and exhibits insulin-sensitising and anti-inflammatory properties, therefore decreased levels of serum adiponectin is an independent risk factor for progression to type 2 diabetes as well as being linked with other pathologies such as metabolic syndrome, cancer and cardiovascular disease.
I – Increase in Adiponectin Levels
An increase in adiponectin levels is inversely associated with progression to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and subsequently, a reduced risk of cardiovascular events and several obesity-associated cancers. Adiponectin levels can be increased through diet, physical activity and the reduction of abdominal visceral fat.
P – Preventing and Treating Obesity Related Diseases
Studies have highlighted that adiponectin exhibits anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic and anti-diabetic properties, with various functions possibly serving to prevent and treat obesity-related diseases and cardiovascular disease.
O – You Don’t Have to be Overweight to be at Risk
It is widely recognised that people who are overweight are a higher risk of developing T2DM, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease and cancer. This is commonly assessed through measuring Body Mass Index (BMI), however it has limitations and varies in reliability based on age, sex and race. Risk is more accurately identified through abdominal visceral fat (AVF) levels. Adiponectin levels have been shown to have a direct inverse correlation with AVF levels making adiponectin levels a much more reliable indicator of at-risk patients.
N – Niche Product from Randox
Randox automated Adiponectin is a niche product, meaning that we are one of the only manufacturers to supply this reagent in an automated biochemistry format. This is superior to traditional T2DM risk assessment methods.
E – Extensive Measuring Range
Randox Adiponectin has an extensive measuring range of 0.5-40µg/mL, which is vital for clinically accurate results. This ensures that low and high levels of adiponectin are detected within a sample, giving a more accurate assessment of T2DM risk.
C – Complementary Controls and Calibrators
Alongside our adiponectin reagent, we also have complementary controls and calibrators available, offering a complete testing package. Below are the details for our adiponectin controls and calibrators:
|Adiponectin Control Level 2||AO2801||3x1ml|
|Adiponectin Control Level 3||AO2802||3x1ml|
T – Time Consumption
Randox Adiponectin is an automated assay format, meaning that you save time in the laboratory and removes the inconvenience compared to traditional ELISA methods. In addition, when running ELISA methods, the risk of error and contamination is higher than automated methods, which can compromise clinical results.
I – Immunoturbidimetric (Latex Enhanced) method
Randox Adiponectin adopts a Latex Enhanced Immunoturbidimetric method which delivers high performance. This method works through measuring the absorbance of light, whereby inert microscopic particles enlarge the immune complexes, amplifying the reaction and significantly increasing the sensitivity of the reaction.
N – Normal weight
A normal body weight doesn’t mean you are not at risk of developing T2DM. Abdominal Visceral Fat (AVF) is stored deeper than subcutaneous fat and can be wrapped around the body’s major organs such as the liver. With higher levels of AVF inversely correlated with adiponectin levels, this makes adiponectin a strong predictor of T2DM risk and other pathologies such as metabolic syndrome, cancer and CVD.
Please contact us at email@example.com for more information.